Web Security, eCommerce, Cisco Routing Protocols
What are the most popular routing protocols for switching? Why?
IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)- a protocol used by network devices (routers) to determine the best route for datagrams through a packet-switched network.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol – (EIGRP)is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router.
ospf and rip. ospf is becouse it takes the most effective
way to sent traffic on the shortest path first and rip
becouse it is easy to configure.
Interior gateway routing protocols:
OSPF- Open Shortest Path First – link state protocol, uses Dijkstra’s
algorithm, uses IP to carry routing information, supports VLSM
IS-IS- Intermediate System to System – link state protocol, uses Dijkstra’s
algorithm, supports VLSM, can support larger networks than OSPF
RIPv2- Routing information Protocol – Is based on number of hops between
end points, hops are assigned values based on a cost related to the
EIGRP- Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol – Cisco Proprietary,
based on IGRP, distance-vector protocol. Designed to minimize instability
related to topology changes. Converts backwards from 32bit to 24bit for
IGRP neighbors. Uses 3 tables, Topology, routing and neighbor.
IGRP- Interior Gateway Routing Protocol – Cisco Proprietary, created to
overcome limitations of RIP. Supports multiple metrics for routes, then
combines those into a single measurement. Classful protocol, which means it
can’t support VLSM.
Exterior Gateway Routing Protocols:
BGPv4 – Border Gateway Protocol – the routing protocol of the internet,
maintains a routing table of network prefixes. Routing decisions are based
on path and network policies. Supports CIDR and uses route aggregation to
speed things up and decrease routing table size.
STP- Spanning Tree Protocol – Link Layer protocol that prevents switching
loops, and broadcast storms. It allows redundancy without bridge loops.
ospf because shortest route first.and rip because its easy to set up and route. eigrp im not so sure about
OSPF-Open Shortest Path First.
RIP-Routing Internet Protocol
IGRP-Interior Gateway Protocol
EIGRP-Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol
BGP-Border Gateway Protocol
IS-IS-Intermediate System to Intermediate System
EGP-Exterior Gateway Protocol
Although there are many types of routing protocols, three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks:
* Interior gateway routing via link-state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS
* Interior gateway routing via path vector or distance vector protocols, such as RIP, IGRP and EIGRP
* Exterior gateway routing. BGP v4 is the routing protocol used by the public Internet.
The most popular routing protocols for switching are –
OSPF – Single-Area Open Shortest Path First – Perhaps the most widely used IGP, based on Dijkstra’s algorithm, a shortest path first algorithm. OSPF detects changes in the topology, such as link failures, very quickly and converges on a new loop-free routing structure within seconds.
EIGRP – Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol –
EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router.
RIP V2 – Routing Information Protocol – Uses Distance Vector routing algorithm. Has been widely replaced by OSPF however.
The most popular dynamic routing protocol is OSPF. It’s an open protocol that any server OS can use that can be scaled to any size network. RIPv2 is popular with network shorter than 15 hops and is easier to configure than OSPF. RIPv2 can also be used by most routers and firewalls. BGP is also used by routers that make routing decisions on the internet. It uses AS-PATH to determine routing metric to determine the shortest path through the internet.
Based on RFC 1388, 1723, and 2453, RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol. Its primarily limitation is that it can’t support a network that has more than 15 hops. RIP assumes that anything more than 15 hops is infinity, so it considers the route invalid. Despite this limitation, RIP works great for basic route communications between devices.
Its other benefit is that it’s so widespread. Many routers come with RIP by default, even many small office routers. In addition, many firewalls support RIP, but not OSPF or EIGRP.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)is an adaptive routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS)
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol – (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router. Routers that support EIGRP will automatically redistribute route information to IGRP neighbors by converting the 32 bit EIGRP metric to the 24 bit IGRP metric. Most of the routing optimizations are based on the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) work from SRI, which guarantees loop-free operation and provides a mechanism for fast convergence.
Routing Protocols are protocols that governs how routers communicate with each other; in broadcasting informations it enables them to select routes between 2 nodes or computers in a network.
EIGRP: EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an enhanced version of IGRP. IGRP is Cisco’s Interior Gateway Routing Protocol used in TCP/IP and OSI internets. It is regarded as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) but has also been used extensively as an exterior gateway protocol for inter-domain routing. IGRP uses distance vector routing technology.
OSPF: OSPF is an interior gateway protocol used for routing between routers belonging to a single Autonomous System. OSPF is classified as an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). This means that it distributes routing information between routers belonging to a single Autonomous System. The OSPF protocol is based on link-state or SPF technology. In a link-state routing protocol, each router maintains a database describing the Autonomous System’s topology. OSPF enables the flexible configuration of IP subnets.
RIP: RIP is intended to allow hosts and gateways to exchange information for computing routes through an IP-based network. RIP is a distance vector protocol. RIP is used to convey information about routes to “destinations”, which may be individual hosts, networks, or a special destination used to convey a default route.
Taken from Wikipedia.com:
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an adaptive routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).
OSPF is perhaps the most widely-used interior gateway protocol (IGP) in large enterprise networks. IS-IS, another link-state routing protocol, is more common in large service provider networks. The most widely-used exterior gateway protocol is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the principal routing protocol between autonomous systems on the Internet.
OSPF was the first widely deployed routing protocol that could converge a network in the low seconds, and guarantee loop-free paths. It has many features that allow the imposition of policies about the propagation of routes that it may be appropriate to keep local, for load sharing, and for selective route importing more than IS-IS. IS-IS, in contrast, can be tuned for lower overhead in a stable network, the sort more common in ISP than enterprise networks. There are some historical accidents that made IS-IS the preferred IGP for ISPs, but ISP’s today may well choose to use the features of the now-efficient implementations of OSPF, after first considering the pros and cons of IS-IS in service provider environments..
As mentioned, OSPF can provide better load-sharing on external links than other IGPs. When the default route to an ISP is injected into OSPF from multiple ASBRs as a Type I external route and the same external cost specified, other routers will go to the ASBR with the least path cost from its location. This can be tuned further by adjusting the external cost.
I think it depends on how you are using the routing protocol. Individual protocols have different uses that fit special needs. The most widely used exterior routing protocol would be BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) because it gathers internal IP addresses and links them to a single network address. This is mostly used by the ISPs. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is the most used interior routing protocol because it detects changes in the network and automatically finds another way to get information to its destination.
The most popular routing protocols are OSPF and RIP. RIP is the easiest to use out of those two. OSPF is the most effective of the two.
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